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Fear of Open Spaces: What Agoraphobia is and How to Deal with It

Updated: Sep 21, 2023

Have you ever felt a sense of dread or panic at the thought of leaving your home, going to public places or being in a crowd? This fear may be a symptom of agoraphobia. Agoraphobia is a type of anxiety disorder that causes individuals to feel intense fear and anxiety in situations where escape may be difficult or help may not be available. In this article, we will explore what agoraphobia is, its causes and symptoms, how it affects daily life, and most importantly, how it can be managed and treated.

What Is Agoraphobia: Understanding the Fear of Open Spaces

Agoraphobia is a type of anxiety disorder characterized by an intense fear of open spaces, public places, and situations where escape may be difficult or embarrassing. This fear often leads to avoidance of these places and can significantly impact daily life. Agoraphobia affects people of all ages, but it is most common in young adults. This phobia can be caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. It often develops after experiencing a traumatic event or a panic attack in a specific location, which then triggers a fear of that place or similar situations. In some cases, agoraphobia may also be a symptom of another underlying mental health condition, such as panic disorder or social anxiety disorder.

You can find out more about this topic checking out: Is it Anxiety, a Phobia, or Both?

Cause and Symptoms of Agoraphobia

The exact cause of agoraphobia is still unknown, but studies have shown that it can be triggered by traumatic life events, such as abuse, neglect, or a traumatic experience (Wild, 2007). Genetics may also play a role in the development of agoraphobia. Some of the symptoms of agoraphobia include:

  • Intense fear of leaving home or being in crowded places

  • Panic attacks

  • Dizziness or lightheadedness

  • Shortness of breath or hyperventilation

  • Racing heartbeat or heart palpitations

  • Sweating

  • Nausea or stomach upset

The Realities of Agoraphobia: How it Affects Your Everyday Life

Living with agoraphobia can be incredibly challenging. It's not just a fear of open spaces, but a fear of situations where you might feel trapped or helpless, and that can include being in crowded places or far away from home. This fear can make it difficult to do everyday things like going to work, shopping for groceries, or even seeing friends and family (Bandelow, 1999).

The effects of agoraphobia can be isolating, as people with the condition may feel more comfortable staying at home than going out and facing their fears. This can lead to feelings of loneliness, depression, and anxiety. Additionally, the fear of having a panic attack in public can lead to avoidance behaviors, such as not leaving the house or only going out with someone they trust.

Agoraphobia can have a significant impact on an individual's daily life, causing them to avoid social situations, work, and other daily activities. The National Institute of Mental Health (2023) estimates that the lifetime prevalence of agoraphobia is 1.3%, with an annual incidence rate of 0.9%.

If you are living with agoraphobia, it's important to know that you don't have to face it alone. While there is no one-size-fits-all treatment for this condition, exposure therapy has been found to be a highly effective approach for many people. Studies have shown that exposure therapy is highly effective, with approximately 60-80% of individuals with anxiety disorders experiencing significant improvement in their symptoms (Sars, 2015).

This type of therapy involves gradually exposing yourself to the situations that trigger your anxiety, in a safe and controlled environment, until you feel more comfortable and confident.

Exposure Therapy for Agoraphobia: Understanding How It Works

Exposure therapy is a type of cognitive-behavioral therapy that involves gradually exposing a person to the situations or objects that trigger their anxiety or fear. This approach can be highly effective in treating anxiety disorders, including agoraphobia.

The benefits of exposure therapy are numerous (Hofmann, 2008). Firstly, it allows individuals to confront their fears and anxieties in a controlled and safe environment, which can help to reduce the intensity of their emotional response. This can be particularly helpful for individuals with agoraphobia, as they may feel a sense of safety and control in their home environment, but experience intense anxiety when faced with open spaces or crowded areas.

Virtual reality (VR) technology is a new and innovative tool that can be used in exposure therapy for agoraphobia. oVRcome is one such VR tool that allows individuals to face their fears in a controlled and safe environment. Studies have shown that VR exposure therapy is just as effective as in-person exposure therapy (Botella, 2017).

Real-Life Success Stories: How Exposure Therapy is Revolutionizing Agoraphobia Treatment

Mark, 32 year-old, who had been living with agoraphobia for over a decade. Mark’s fear of open spaces was so severe that he found it difficult to leave his home without experiencing intense panic attacks.

Mark’s therapist recommended exposure therapy as a way to help him overcome his fear. In addition to in-person sessions, he also started using oVRcome, a virtual reality exposure therapy platform.

Using oVRcome, Mark was able to gradually expose himself to different scenarios that triggered his anxiety, such as walking down a busy street or going to a shopping mall. Over time, his anxiety levels decreased, and he was able to venture further and further from his home without experiencing panic attacks.

“I can’t believe how much my life has changed since starting exposure therapy and using oVRcome,” Mark says. “I never thought I would be able to leave my house without feeling like I was going to die, but now I’m able to go out and do things that I never thought were possible. It’s like a weight has been lifted off my shoulders.”

Mark’s story is just one example of how exposure therapy and virtual reality can be powerful tools in the treatment of agoraphobia. Through a combination of professional guidance and cutting-edge technology, those who struggle with this condition can find hope and a path towards a fulfilling, anxiety-free life.


  • Wild J, Hackmann A, Clark M. (2007). When the present visits the past: Updating traumatic memories in social phobia.

  • Bandelow, B. (1999). Panic and Agoraphobia Scale (PAS).

  • National Institute Mental Health (NIMH) (2023). Agoraphobia.

  • Sars, D., & van Minnen, A. (2015). On the use of exposure therapy in the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  • Hofmann, S. G. (2008). Cognitive processes during fear acquisition and extinction in animals and humans: Implications for exposure therapy of anxiety disorders

  • Botella, C., Fernández-Álvarez, J., Guillén, V., García-Palacios A. & Baños, R. (2017). Recent Progress in Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Phobias: A Systematic Review.

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